Diabetes for Doctors

Addendum. 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes--2021. Diabetes Care 2021;44(Suppl. 1):S15-S33

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Addendum. 11. Microvascular Complications and Foot Care: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes--2021: Diabetes Care 2021;44(Suppl. 1):S151-S167

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Trends in Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes Among Adults in the U.S., 2005-2016

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Primary Care Health Care Use for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Genetic Risk Score for Type 2 Diabetes and Traits Related to Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis in Youth: The Exploring Perinatal Outcomes Among Children (EPOCH) Study


The metabolic phenotype of youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) differs from that of adult-onset T2D, but little is known about genetic contributions. We aimed to evaluate the association between a T2D genetic risk score (GRS) and traits related to glucose-insulin homeostasis among healthy youth.


We used data from 356 youth (mean age 16.7 years; 50% female) in the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes Among Children (EPOCH) cohort to calculate a standardized weighted GRS based on 271 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with T2D in adults. We used linear regression to assess associations of the GRS with log-transformed fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), oral disposition index, and insulinogenic index adjusted for age, sex, BMI z score, in utero exposure to maternal diabetes, and genetic principal components. We also evaluated effect modification by BMI z score, in utero exposure to maternal diabetes, and ethnicity.


Higher weighted GRS was associated with lower oral disposition index (β = –0.11; 95% CI –0.19, –0.02) and insulinogenic index (β = –0.08; 95% CI –0.17, –0.001), but not with fasting glucose (β = 0.01; 95% CI –0.01, 0.02), 2-h glucose (β = 0.03; 95% CI –0.0004, 0.06), or HOMA-IR (β = 0.02; 95% CI –0.04, 0.07). BMI z score and in utero exposure to maternal diabetes increased the effect of the GRS on glucose levels.


Our results suggest that T2D genetic risk factors established in adults are relevant to glucose-insulin homeostasis in youth and that maintaining a healthy weight may be particularly important for youth with high genetic risk of T2D.

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